The stress of being different often leads to low self-esteem and behavioral problems. Most women with triple X syndrome are able to function in society and can bear children. People with Klinefelter syndrome get two copies of the X-chromosome and one copy of the Y-chromosome.
They are male, but develop some breast tissue and have less hair and a less muscular body than normal men. The condition is uncommon, but not rare, affecting between 1 in and 1 in 1, men. Most men with Klinefelter syndrome are sterile because they are unable to produce sperm. Along with the altered physical characteristics, men with Klinefelter syndrome are also more likely to have learning disabilities.
It affects 1 in 1, boys and men.
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Learning disorders, reduced IQ and some problems with behavior and impulsiveness are common. These men were once thought to be overly aggressive and lacking in empathy, but most have normal lives, hold jobs and are capable of having children. Based in Wenatchee, Wash. She has written peer-reviewed articles in the "Journal of Wildlife Management," policy documents,and educational materials. Butterflies are also another example.
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There are many very closely related species of butterflies that have large differences in chromosome number. Take the South American Philaethria butterflies.
Their chromosome number can range anywhere from 12 to 88! The butterflies are fine because they all have the same information. It's just arranged in different ways. But scientists aren't sure yet if these changes actually cause two species to split. They could also have happened after the species split. In which case, chromosome number didn't have anything to do with making a new species. And the same thing is true with humans. We still aren't sure the jump from 24 to 23 chromosomes is what makes us human. Like I said, it is certainly possible that we split from our ape ancestors before the difference in chromosome number.
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So in other words, humans may have become a new species for reasons other than chromosome number. We don't yet know what specific differences at the DNA level are responsible for making us different than apes. But scientists have a few ideas. And many of these ideas revolve around changes in our DNA that gave our human ancestors some advantage.
There actually have been quite a few rearrangements between human and ape chromosomes over the years. It may be that one of these caused new information to be created. Or some to be lost. This does happen sometimes. Remember, I said the information is in discrete chunks. A lot of this information is found in our genes.
If something changes one of these genes so it gets used at the wrong time or in the wrong place, then it will change something about that animal. For example, if a part of a chromosome gets flipped right in the middle of a gene, then that gene will be affected.
Mixing up chromosomes sometimes causes these kinds of changes. And if that change has an advantage, then it will spread. Another idea is that small changes in DNA sequences mutations could have caused a gene to change. Like maybe a gene for brain size or talking.
Or it could be some combination of many DNA changes. Scientists have discovered several possible candidate genes for making us human. While the vast majority of our DNA is the exact same as chimpanzees, there have to differences too.
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If they were exactly the same, then we wouldn't be 2 different species. Finding differences between human and chimp DNA is actually a very big area of research for scientists. They hope that by studying these differences, we can figure out what makes us human. Unfortunately we can't go back in time and figure out exactly what happened.
But studying our DNA is the best way we can retrace history. Monica Rodriguez, Stanford University. Human chromosome 2 is made up of two ape chromosomes. About 1 in people have major rearrangements in their chromosomes. Pero lo que si sabemos es que los cromosomas se pueden unir. Y que es muy probable que nunca lo sepamos. Los humanos tienen 23 pares de cromosomas y los simios tienen 24 pares. Esto significa que probablemente dos cromosmas fueros unidos en sus extremos para formar uno.
Los cromosomas se pueden quebrar y se pueden unir. Una parte del cromosomas se puede voltear u otra parte se puede unir a un cromosoma completamente distinto. Podemos ver ejemplos de esto cuando analizamos cromosomas humanos y simios. Estas cadenas se encuentran separadas en pedazos exactos, entonces existen bastantes lugares en donde se pueden quebrar o juntar. Pero esto puede volverse un problema cuando esta misma persona trata de tener hijos.
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Estas cosas son muy comunes. Una de las maneras en las que todos terminamos con 23 pares de cromosomas es que el tener dos cromosomas unidas nos podria otorgar cierta ventaja. Pero no tenemos ninguna evidencia para concluir en esto. Otra manera es por simple casualidad. Es por eso que, por ejemplo, ciertas enfermedades son muy communes en comunidades Amish. Mientras otras enfermedades son casi desconocidas. Este es el concepto principal del efecto fundador. Estas dos personas abandonan la tribu, y encuentran a un grupo nuevo.
Luego, ellos tienen seis hijos. Dos de ellos heredan el cromosoma fundido de cada padre y ahora tienen un par menos de cromosomas. T-box , brain , 1 THAP4: Xin actin-binding repeat-containing protein 2 ZNF This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. G-banding ideograms of human chromosome 2. G-banding ideogram of human chromosome 2 in resolution bphs. Band length in this diagram is proportional to base-pair length. This type of ideogram is generally used in genome browsers e. G-banding patterns of human chromosome 2 in three different resolutions ,   and . Band length in this diagram is based on the ideograms from ISCN National Center for Biotechnology Information.
Chromosome summary - Homo sapiens". Retrieved 25 January Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers. Short arm; " q ": Region which is positively stained by G banding , generally AT-rich and gene poor; gneg: Region which is negatively stained by G banding, generally CG-rich and gene rich; acen Centromere. Retrieved from " https: Chromosomes human Human evolution Genes on human chromosome 2.