Without this contemplative dimension, it would lose its meaning, as Pope Paul VI clearly pointed out: By its nature the recitation of the Rosary calls for a quiet rhythm and a lingering pace, helping the individual to meditate on the mysteries of the Lord's life as seen through the eyes of her who was closest to the Lord. It is worth pausing to consider this profound insight of Paul VI, in order to bring out certain aspects of the Rosary which show that it is really a form of Christocentric contemplation. Mary's contemplation is above all a remembering. We need to understand this word in the biblical sense of remembrance zakar as a making present of the works brought about by God in the history of salvation.
The Bible is an account of saving events culminating in Christ himself. This making present comes about above all in the Liturgy: To some extent this is also true of every other devout approach to those events: Christians, while they are called to prayer in common, must also go to their own rooms to pray to their Father in secret cf. By immersing us in the mysteries of the Redeemer's life, it ensures that what he has done and what the liturgy makes present is profoundly assimilated and shapes our existence. Christ is the supreme Teacher, the revealer and the one revealed.
In this regard could we have any better teacher than Mary? From the divine standpoint, the Spirit is the interior teacher who leads us to the full truth of Christ cf. But among creatures no one knows Christ better than Mary; no one can introduce us to a profound knowledge of his mystery better than his Mother. We can imagine that she would have done likewise for the disciples after Jesus' Ascension, when she joined them in awaiting the Holy Spirit and supported them in their first mission. Christian spirituality is distinguished by the disciple's commitment to become conformed ever more fully to his Master cf.
The outpouring of the Holy Spirit in Baptism grafts the believer like a branch onto the vine which is Christ cf. In the spiritual journey of the Rosary, based on the constant contemplation — in Mary's company — of the face of Christ, this demanding ideal of being conformed to him is pursued through an association which could be described in terms of friendship.
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We are thereby enabled to enter naturally into Christ's life and as it were to share his deepest feelings. In this regard Blessed Bartolo Longo has written: In this process of being conformed to Christ in the Rosary, we entrust ourselves in a special way to the maternal care of the Blessed Virgin. As such, she continually brings to birth children for the mystical Body of her Son. She does so through her intercession, imploring upon them the inexhaustible outpouring of the Spirit.
Mary is the perfect icon of the motherhood of the Church. The Rosary mystically transports us to Mary's side as she is busy watching over the human growth of Christ in the home of Nazareth. Hence the most perfect of all devotions is undoubtedly that which conforms, unites and consecrates us most perfectly to Jesus Christ. Mary lives only in Christ and for Christ! Jesus invited us to turn to God with insistence and the confidence that we will be heard: The basis for this power of prayer is the goodness of the Father, but also the mediation of Christ himself cf.
In support of the prayer which Christ and the Spirit cause to rise in our hearts, Mary intervenes with her maternal intercession. The Rosary is both meditation and supplication. Insistent prayer to the Mother of God is based on confidence that her maternal intercession can obtain all things from the heart of her Son. The supreme poet Dante expresses it marvellously in the lines sung by Saint Bernard: The Rosary is also a path of proclamation and increasing knowledge , in which the mystery of Christ is presented again and again at different levels of the Christian experience. Its form is that of a prayerful and contemplative presentation, capable of forming Christians according to the heart of Christ.
When the recitation of the Rosary combines all the elements needed for an effective meditation, especially in its communal celebration in parishes and shrines, it can present a significant catechetical opportunity which pastors should use to advantage. In this way too Our Lady of the Rosary continues her work of proclaiming Christ. The history of the Rosary shows how this prayer was used in particular by the Dominicans at a difficult time for the Church due to the spread of heresy.
Today we are facing new challenges. Why should we not once more have recourse to the Rosary, with the same faith as those who have gone before us?
The Rosary retains all its power and continues to be a valuable pastoral resource for every good evangelizer. In the region of Caesarea Philippi, Jesus responded to Peter's confession of faith by indicating the source of that clear intuition of his identity: What is needed, then, is a revelation from above. In order to receive that revelation, attentive listening is indispensable: The Rosary is one of the traditional paths of Christian prayer directed to the contemplation of Christ's face.
Pope Paul VI described it in these words: Its most characteristic element, in fact, the litany- like succession of Hail Marys , becomes in itself an unceasing praise of Christ, who is the ultimate object both of the Angel's announcement and of the greeting of the Mother of John the Baptist: We would go further and say that the succession of Hail Marys constitutes the warp on which is woven the contemplation of the mysteries.
Of the many mysteries of Christ's life, only a few are indicated by the Rosary in the form that has become generally established with the seal of the Church's approval. The selection was determined by the origin of the prayer, which was based on the number , the number of the Psalms in the Psalter.
I believe, however, that to bring out fully the Christological depth of the Rosary it would be suitable to make an addition to the traditional pattern which, while left to the freedom of individuals and communities, could broaden it to include the mysteries of Christ's public ministry between his Baptism and his Passion. In the course of those mysteries we contemplate important aspects of the person of Christ as the definitive revelation of God. Declared the beloved Son of the Father at the Baptism in the Jordan, Christ is the one who announces the coming of the Kingdom, bears witness to it in his works and proclaims its demands.
It is during the years of his public ministry that the mystery of Christ is most evidently a mystery of light: This addition of these new mysteries, without prejudice to any essential aspect of the prayer's traditional format, is meant to give it fresh life and to enkindle renewed interest in the Rosary's place within Christian spirituality as a true doorway to the depths of the Heart of Christ, ocean of joy and of light, of suffering and of glory. This is clear from the very first mystery, the Annunciation, where Gabriel's greeting to the Virgin of Nazareth is linked to an invitation to messianic joy: The whole of salvation history, in some sense the entire history of the world, has led up to this greeting.
If it is the Father's plan to unite all things in Christ cf. The whole of humanity, in turn, is embraced by the fiat with which she readily agrees to the will of God. The final two mysteries, while preserving this climate of joy, already point to the drama yet to come. Joy mixed with drama marks the fifth mystery, the finding of the twelve-year-old Jesus in the Temple. The revelation of his mystery as the Son wholly dedicated to his Father's affairs proclaims the radical nature of the Gospel, in which even the closest of human relationships are challenged by the absolute demands of the Kingdom.
It is to focus on the realism of the mystery of the Incarnation and on the obscure foreshadowing of the mystery of the saving Passion. Certainly the whole mystery of Christ is a mystery of light. Yet this truth emerges in a special way during the years of his public life, when he proclaims the Gospel of the Kingdom. Each of these mysteries is a revelation of the Kingdom now present in the very person of Jesus. The Baptism in the Jordan is first of all a mystery of light. Another mystery of light is the first of the signs, given at Cana cf. Another mystery of light is the preaching by which Jesus proclaims the coming of the Kingdom of God, calls to conversion cf.
The mystery of light par excellence is the Transfiguration, traditionally believed to have taken place on Mount Tabor. In these mysteries, apart from the miracle at Cana, the presence of Mary remains in the background. The Gospels make only the briefest reference to her occasional presence at one moment or other during the preaching of Jesus cf. Yet the role she assumed at Cana in some way accompanies Christ throughout his ministry.
The revelation made directly by the Father at the Baptism in the Jordan and echoed by John the Baptist is placed upon Mary's lips at Cana, and it becomes the great maternal counsel which Mary addresses to the Church of every age: The Gospels give great prominence to the sorrowful mysteries of Christ.
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From the beginning Christian piety, especially during the Lenten devotion of the Way of the Cross , has focused on the individual moments of the Passion, realizing that here is found the culmination of the revelation of God's love and the source of our salvation. The Rosary selects certain moments from the Passion, inviting the faithful to contemplate them in their hearts and to relive them. The sequence of meditations begins with Gethsemane, where Christ experiences a moment of great anguish before the will of the Father, against which the weakness of the flesh would be tempted to rebel.
There Jesus encounters all the temptations and confronts all the sins of humanity, in order to say to the Father: And the cost of this faithfulness to the Father's will is made clear in the following mysteries; by his scourging, his crowning with thorns, his carrying the Cross and his death on the Cross, the Lord is cast into the most abject suffering: This abject suffering reveals not only the love of God but also the meaning of man himself. The sorrowful mysteries help the believer to relive the death of Jesus, to stand at the foot of the Cross beside Mary, to enter with her into the depths of God's love for man and to experience all its life-giving power.
He is the Risen One! Contemplating the Risen One, Christians rediscover the reasons for their own faith cf. In the Ascension, Christ was raised in glory to the right hand of the Father, while Mary herself would be raised to that same glory in the Assumption, enjoying beforehand, by a unique privilege, the destiny reserved for all the just at the resurrection of the dead. Crowned in glory — as she appears in the last glorious mystery — Mary shines forth as Queen of the Angels and Saints, the anticipation and the supreme realization of the eschatological state of the Church.
At the centre of this unfolding sequence of the glory of the Son and the Mother, the Rosary sets before us the third glorious mystery, Pentecost, which reveals the face of the Church as a family gathered together with Mary, enlivened by the powerful outpouring of the Spirit and ready for the mission of evangelization. The glorious mysteries thus lead the faithful to greater hope for the eschatological goal towards which they journey as members of the pilgrim People of God in history.
The cycles of meditation proposed by the Holy Rosary are by no means exhaustive, but they do bring to mind what is essential and they awaken in the soul a thirst for a knowledge of Christ continually nourished by the pure source of the Gospel. Every individual event in the life of Christ, as narrated by the Evangelists, is resplendent with the Mystery that surpasses all understanding cf. The Letter to the Ephesians makes this heartfelt prayer for all the baptized: We might call it Mary's way. It is the way of the example of the Virgin of Nazareth, a woman of faith, of silence, of attentive listening.
It is also the way of a Marian devotion inspired by knowledge of the inseparable bond between Christ and his Blessed Mother: In my testimony of mentioned above, where I described the Rosary as my favourite prayer, I used an idea to which I would like to return. In the light of what has been said so far on the mysteries of Christ, it is not difficult to go deeper into this anthropological significance of the Rosary, which is far deeper than may appear at first sight.
Anyone who contemplates Christ through the various stages of his life cannot fail to perceive in him the truth about man. This is the great affirmation of the Second Vatican Council which I have so often discussed in my own teaching since the Encyclical Letter Redemptor Hominis: Contemplating Christ's birth, they learn of the sanctity of life; seeing the household of Nazareth, they learn the original truth of the family according to God's plan; listening to the Master in the mysteries of his public ministry, they find the light which leads them to enter the Kingdom of God; and following him on the way to Calvary, they learn the meaning of salvific suffering.
Finally, contemplating Christ and his Blessed Mother in glory, they see the goal towards which each of us is called, if we allow ourselves to be healed and transformed by the Holy Spirit. It could be said that each mystery of the Rosary, carefully meditated, sheds light on the mystery of man. At the same time, it becomes natural to bring to this encounter with the sacred humanity of the Redeemer all the problems, anxieties, labours and endeavours which go to make up our lives. To pray the Rosary is to hand over our burdens to the merciful hearts of Christ and his Mother. Twenty-five years later, thinking back over the difficulties which have also been part of my exercise of the Petrine ministry, I feel the need to say once more, as a warm invitation to everyone to experience it personally: Meditation on the mysteries of Christ is proposed in the Rosary by means of a method designed to assist in their assimilation.
It is a method based on repetition. This applies above all to the Hail Mary , repeated ten times in each mystery. If this repetition is considered superficially, there could be a temptation to see the Rosary as a dry and boring exercise. It is quite another thing, however, when the Rosary is thought of as an outpouring of that love which tirelessly returns to the person loved with expressions similar in their content but ever fresh in terms of the feeling pervading them. Not only does God have a divine heart, rich in mercy and in forgiveness, but also a human heart, capable of all the stirrings of affection.
If we needed evidence for this from the Gospel, we could easily find it in the touching dialogue between Christ and Peter after the Resurrection: Over and above the specific meaning of this passage, so important for Peter's mission, none can fail to recognize the beauty of this triple repetition, in which the insistent request and the corresponding reply are expressed in terms familiar from the universal experience of human love.
To understand the Rosary, one has to enter into the psychological dynamic proper to love. One thing is clear: The repetition is nourished by the desire to be conformed ever more completely to Christ, the true programme of the Christian life. Saint Paul expressed this project with words of fire: The Rosary helps us to be conformed ever more closely to Christ until we attain true holiness. We should not be surprised that our relationship with Christ makes use of a method. God communicates himself to us respecting our human nature and its vital rhythms. Hence, while Christian spirituality is familiar with the most sublime forms of mystical silence in which images, words and gestures are all, so to speak, superseded by an intense and ineffable union with God, it normally engages the whole person in all his complex psychological, physical and relational reality.
This becomes apparent in the Liturgy. Sacraments and sacramentals are structured as a series of rites which bring into play all the dimensions of the person. The same applies to non-liturgical prayer. I mentioned in my Apostolic Letter Novo Millennio Ineunte that the West is now experiencing a renewed demand for meditation , which at times leads to a keen interest in aspects of other religions. While the latter contain many elements which are positive and at times compatible with Christian experience, they are often based on ultimately unacceptable premises.
Much in vogue among these approaches are methods aimed at attaining a high level of spiritual concentration by using techniques of a psychophysical, repetitive and symbolic nature. The Rosary is situated within this broad gamut of religious phenomena, but it is distinguished by characteristics of its own which correspond to specifically Christian requirements.
In effect, the Rosary is simply a method of contemplation. As a method, it serves as a means to an end and cannot become an end in itself. All the same, as the fruit of centuries of experience, this method should not be undervalued. In its favour one could cite the experience of countless Saints. This is not to say, however, that the method cannot be improved.
Such is the intent of the addition of the new series of mysteria lucis to the overall cycle of mysteries and of the few suggestions which I am proposing in this Letter regarding its manner of recitation. These suggestions, while respecting the well-established structure of this prayer, are intended to help the faithful to understand it in the richness of its symbolism and in harmony with the demands of daily life. Otherwise there is a risk that the Rosary would not only fail to produce the intended spiritual effects, but even that the beads, with which it is usually said, could come to be regarded as some kind of amulet or magic object, thereby radically distorting their meaning and function.
Announcing each mystery, and perhaps even using a suitable icon to portray it, is as it were to open up a scenario on which to focus our attention. The words direct the imagination and the mind towards a particular episode or moment in the life of Christ. In the Church's traditional spirituality, the veneration of icons and the many devotions appealing to the senses, as well as the method of prayer proposed by Saint Ignatius of Loyola in the Spiritual Exercises, make use of visual and imaginative elements the compositio loci , judged to be of great help in concentrating the mind on the particular mystery.
This is a methodology, moreover, which corresponds to the inner logic of the Incarnation: It is through his bodily reality that we are led into contact with the mystery of his divinity. This need for concreteness finds further expression in the announcement of the various mysteries of the Rosary. Obviously these mysteries neither replace the Gospel nor exhaust its content.
The Rosary, therefore, is no substitute for lectio divina ; on the contrary, it presupposes and promotes it. Yet, even though the mysteries contemplated in the Rosary, even with the addition of the mysteria lucis , do no more than outline the fundamental elements of the life of Christ, they easily draw the mind to a more expansive reflection on the rest of the Gospel, especially when the Rosary is prayed in a setting of prolonged recollection.
In order to supply a Biblical foundation and greater depth to our meditation, it is helpful to follow the announcement of the mystery with the proclamation of a related Biblical passage , long or short, depending on the circumstances. No other words can ever match the efficacy of the inspired word. If received in this way, the word of God can become part of the Rosary's methodology of repetition without giving rise to the ennui derived from the simple recollection of something already well known. It is not a matter of recalling information but of allowing God to speak.
In certain solemn communal celebrations, this word can be appropriately illustrated by a brief commentary. Listening and meditation are nourished by silence. After the announcement of the mystery and the proclamation of the word, it is fitting to pause and focus one's attention for a suitable period of time on the mystery concerned, before moving into vocal prayer. A discovery of the importance of silence is one of the secrets of practicing contemplation and meditation.
One drawback of a society dominated by technology and the mass media is the fact that silence becomes increasingly difficult to achieve. Just as moments of silence are recommended in the Liturgy, so too in the recitation of the Rosary it is fitting to pause briefly after listening to the word of God, while the mind focuses on the content of a particular mystery. After listening to the word and focusing on the mystery, it is natural for the mind to be lifted up towards the Father.
In each of his mysteries, Jesus always leads us to the Father, for as he rests in the Father's bosom cf. He wants us to share in his intimacy with the Father, so that we can say with him: By virtue of his relationship to the Father he makes us brothers and sisters of himself and of one another, communicating to us the Spirit which is both his and the Father's. Acting as a kind of foundation for the Christological and Marian meditation which unfolds in the repetition of the Hail Mary , the Our Father makes meditation upon the mystery, even when carried out in solitude, an ecclesial experience.
This is the most substantial element in the Rosary and also the one which makes it a Marian prayer par excellence. Yet when the Hail Mary is properly understood, we come to see clearly that its Marian character is not opposed to its Christological character, but that it actually emphasizes and increases it. The first part of the Hail Mary , drawn from the words spoken to Mary by the Angel Gabriel and by Saint Elizabeth, is a contemplation in adoration of the mystery accomplished in the Virgin of Nazareth. Mary's prophecy here finds its fulfilment: The centre of gravity in the Hail Mary , the hinge as it were which joins its two parts, is the name of Jesus.
Sometimes, in hurried recitation, this centre of gravity can be overlooked, and with it the connection to the mystery of Christ being contemplated. Yet it is precisely the emphasis given to the name of Jesus and to his mystery that is the sign of a meaningful and fruitful recitation of the Rosary. Pope Paul VI drew attention, in his Apostolic Exhortation Marialis Cultus , to the custom in certain regions of highlighting the name of Christ by the addition of a clause referring to the mystery being contemplated.
It gives forceful expression to our faith in Christ, directed to the different moments of the Redeemer's life. It is at once a profession of faith and an aid in concentrating our meditation, since it facilitates the process of assimilation to the mystery of Christ inherent in the repetition of the Hail Mary.
When we repeat the name of Jesus — the only name given to us by which we may hope for salvation cf. Trinitarian doxology is the goal of all Christian contemplation. For Christ is the way that leads us to the Father in the Spirit. If we travel this way to the end, we repeatedly encounter the mystery of the three divine Persons, to whom all praise, worship and thanksgiving are due.
It is important that the Gloria , the high-point of contemplation , be given due prominence in the Rosary. In public recitation it could be sung, as a way of giving proper emphasis to the essentially Trinitarian structure of all Christian prayer. To the extent that meditation on the mystery is attentive and profound, and to the extent that it is enlivened — from one Hail Mary to another — by love for Christ and for Mary, the glorification of the Trinity at the end of each decade, far from being a perfunctory conclusion, takes on its proper contemplative tone, raising the mind as it were to the heights of heaven and enabling us in some way to relive the experience of Tabor, a foretaste of the contemplation yet to come: In current practice, the Trinitarian doxology is followed by a brief concluding prayer which varies according to local custom.
Without in any way diminishing the value of such invocations, it is worthwhile to note that the contemplation of the mysteries could better express their full spiritual fruitfulness if an effort were made to conclude each mystery with a prayer for the fruits specific to that particular mystery.
In this way the Rosary would better express its connection with the Christian life. Such a final prayer could take on a legitimate variety of forms, as indeed it already does. In this way the Rosary can be better adapted to different spiritual traditions and different Christian communities. It is to be hoped, then, that appropriate formulas will be widely circulated, after due pastoral discernment and possibly after experimental use in centres and shrines particularly devoted to the Rosary, so that the People of God may benefit from an abundance of authentic spiritual riches and find nourishment for their personal contemplation.
The traditional aid used for the recitation of the Rosary is the set of beads. At the most superficial level, the beads often become a simple counting mechanism to mark the succession of Hail Marys. This was the "musical pray" of Mexico to the Pope. Due to the religious success that surprised Daniela and producers, they wanted to include it in the album Me Vuelves Loca, but PolyGram was absorbed by Universal Music Group and the inclusion was canceled.
Archived from the original on According to the census, it has a population of , people. By land area, it is the largest in the province of Laguna. The city is more popularly known as the "City of Seven Lakes" Tagalog: History San Pablo's earliest historical record dates back A canonical coronation Latin: Since , the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments executes the act that the decree authorizes.
History The Nursing Madonna crowne Drug lord Griselda Blanco distributed cocaine for the Cartel in New York City and later Miami, establishing a crime network that at its height trafficked around kilos per month. Private armies were raised to fight of Juan Garcia may refer to: The Estadio Azteca Spanish pronunciation: With an official capacity of 87,, it is the largest stadium in Mexico. The stadium sits at an altitude of 7, feet meters above sea level.
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It also hosted the quarter-final match between Argentina and England in which Diego Maradona scored both the "Hand of God goal" and the "Goal of the Century". The stadium also hosted the "Game of the Century", when Italy defeated West Germany 4—3 in extra time in one of the sem The club was founded in , and since has been owned by media company Grupo Televisa. The Beagle Conflict Main: Beagle Channel cartography Beagle Channel Arbitration — Argentine Referendum and Treaty of Peace and Friendship The Beagle conflict was a border dispute between Chile and Argentina over the possession of Picton, Lennox and Nueva islands and the scope of the maritime jurisdiction associated with those islands that brought the countries to the brink of war in The islands are strategically located off the south edge of Tierra del Fuego and at the east end of the Beagle Channel.
After refusing to abide by a binding international award giving the islands to Chile, the Argentine junta advanced the nation to war in in or It is the main transport route out of the Chilean capital city Santiago into Mendoza city in Argentina and so carries quite heavy traffic. Overview From the Argentine side the route to the pass is a slow, gentle incline until entering a tunnel at approximately 3, meters 10, feet elevation. On the Chilean side the slope has a far higher grade, and the road descends down a long series of switchbacks to make the descent.
Opened in , the Tunnel of Christ the Redeemer Spanish: At the middle of the tunnel is the national border, which is the termini of Chile Route 60 and Argentina Route 7. The path can be closed during winter because of heavy snows blocking both ends and the threat of rockfall. Its name comes fr The ski area is on the northwestern slopes of Veleta, the third highest peak in peninsular Spain and the most southerly ski resort of Europe. It was also host to the Winter Universiade, the world university games.
Description Sierra Nevada is Europe's southernmost ski station, and the highest in Spain. Particularly towards the end of the season it experiences sunny days of skiing, although wind can be a problem due to Veleta's prominence and fe Red Rabbit is a spy thriller novel, written by Tom Clancy and released on August 5, The plot occurs a few months after the events of Patriot Games , and incorporates the assassination attempt on Pope John Paul II. Main character Jack Ryan, now an analyst for the Central Intelligence Agency, takes part in the extraction of a Soviet defector who knows of a KGB plot to kill the pontiff.
The book debuted at number one on the New York Times bestseller list. The Virgin Mary in prayer, by Sassoferrato, 17th century. In the Catholic Church, prayer is "the raising of one's mind and heart to God or the requesting of good things from God. Vocal prayer may be spoken or sung.
Mental prayer can be either meditation or contemplation. The basic forms of prayer are praise, petition supplication , intercession, and thanksgiving. Teachings on prayer Roman Catholic teachings on the subject of prayer are contained in the Catechism, where quoting St. John of Damascus, prayer is defined as " The Ministry of Education Spanish: Retrieved on 17 March The church was commissioned by Cardinal Juan de Torquemada between and It was subsequently extended and refurbished until History Old Postcard of the church.
Detail of Upper Facade. The church construction was commissioned by Cardinal Torquemada to replace a previous church, which had a timber ceiling and was adjacent to a Dominican convent that had been founded in Las Palmas or , Spanish: It is the capital jointly with Santa Cruz de Tenerife , the most populous city in the autonomous community of the Canary Islands, and the ninth-largest city in Spain with a population of , in It is also the fifth-most populous urban area in Spain and depending on sources ninth- or tenth-most populous metropolitan area in Spain.
Las Palmas experiences a hot desert climate,[note 1] offset by the local cooler Canary Current, with warm temperatures throughout the year. It has an average annual temperature of The Philippine two-peso note Filipino: Its printing was ceased in , when it was replaced by coins upon the introduction of the New Design series. Philippine Islands issued silver certificates. Philippine Commonwealth issued treasury certificate.
Since his death on 2 April , many thousands of people have been supporting the case for beatifying and canonising Pope John Paul II as a saint. San Pedro Sula Spanish pronunciation: With a census population of , in , and 1,, people living in its metropolitan area in , it is the nation's primary industrial center and second largest city after the capital Tegucigalpa. History The city grew slowly from about residents in , to almost 10, by the s, but most of this population growth took place in the 19th century.
Zemurray worked closely with local elites who invested in subsidiary enterprises and th Several academics — including Peter Winn, Peter Kornbluh and Tim Weiner — have stated that the support of the United States was crucial to the coup and the consolidation of power afterward. During his long reign as Pope, he apologized to Jews, Galileo, women, people convicted by the Inquisition, Muslims killed by the Crusaders and almost everyone who had allegedly suffered at the hands of the Catholic Church over the years.
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